516. Prevention of crime and disorder.

The European Court of Human Rights has adopted an inclusive interpretation of the prevention of disorder, including, for example, the need to regulate traffic1. This approach has been mirrored by the domestic courts, where, for example, the need to prevent graffiti and criminal damage to flowerbeds has amounted to a legitimate reason for restricting demonstrations2.

Measures intended to penalise unlawful conduct or prevent crime and disorder will pursue a legitimate aim3. This includes an arrest for the failure to obtain prior authorisation for a demonstration and for the refusal to disband it4, a prosecution for the stirring up of ethnic