248. Particular oppressive conditions.

Other conditions of detention may also contribute to a violation of the Article 3 prohibition1, such as overcrowding, lack of sanitation, lack of exercise, fresh air and daylight, inadequate food or lack of ventilation2. Requiring a prisoner to urinate and defecate in a bucket in his cell, which he must empty and clean when his cell is next unlocked (known as 'slopping out') does not in and of itself amount to a violation of either the Article 3 prohibition or the Article 8 right to respect for private and family life3. When considering whether detention conditions may amount to