211. Obligation on states.

Article 21 imposes an obligation on the state to take appropriate steps to safeguard the lives of those within its jurisdiction2. This positive obligation comprises two elements: a general duty on the state to put in place a legislative and administrative framework designed to provide effective deterrence against threats to the right to life3; and an operational duty in certain circumstances to take appropriate steps to safeguard the lives of those within its jurisdiction, including a positive obligation to take preventative operational measures to protect an individual whose life is at risk