467. Meaning of 'expression'.

Freedom of expression is one of the founding principles of a democratic society, without which it would be impossible to enjoy many of the other rights protected by human rights law: it has been described as the primary right in a democracy, one without which an effective rule of law is not possible1. 'Expression' includes communication of any kind or subject matter: written2 or spoken words, television3, film4 and broadcasting5, clothing (and public nudity)6, graffiti7, the physical expression of feelings8, the distribution of pamphlets or leaflets9, preaching10, protest11, a continuous campsite12 and the wearing of a beard13. It has