For the court to find a violation of the positive obligation to protect life1, it must be established that the authorities knew or ought to have known at the time of the existence of a real and immediate risk to the life of an individual and that they failed to take measures within the scope of their powers which, judged reasonably, might have been expected to avoid that risk2. The test remains constant and is to be applied whatever the particular circumstances of the case3. The requirement that the risk should be real means that it has to be
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