The use of force must be subject to appropriate criminal sanctions, both in respect of the intentional use of force1 and unintentional death resulting from use of force2. Article 23 also implies a duty on the state to adopt an appropriate legal and administrative framework defining the limited circumstances in which law enforcement officials are permitted to use force and firearms, in light of the relevant international standards4. There is also a duty to provide adequate training to law enforcement agents, covering the assessment of whether or not there is an absolute necessity to use firearms not only on
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