536. Illicit associations.

Article 111 does not protect associations that undertake illicit activities such as tax evasion, although mere suspicion that an association undertakes illicit activities is not sufficient to place it outside of the protection of Article 112. Where the authorities seek to dissolve associations on the basis that they are conducting illicit activities hard evidence will be required, not general and vague assertions3. Under United Kingdom law an association for the purpose of committing a crime, to defraud or do acts which tend to corrupt public morals or outrage public decency constitutes the criminal offence of conspiracy