450. Freedom of expression.

The European Court of Human Rights differentiates between 'beliefs' protected by Article 91 and 'opinions' and 'ideas' protected by Article 10 (freedom of expression)2, although in some cases there may be some overlap: for example, the exercise of the right to freedom of expression may offend persons with religious sensitivities and such expression may be restricted if it is gratuitously offensive and profane and incites disrespect and hatred3. Where the exercise of freedom of expression encroaches on the right to freedom of religion or thought4 there is a level of positive obligation on the state to ensure religious rights