5. Early rights theorists.

In the late seventeenth, eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries many ideas generally regarded now as central to human rights and the rule of law were developed by early rights' theorists, in particular Thomas Paine and John Locke, alongside the enlightenment philosophers such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Immanuel Kant1. Locke imagined an actual social contract between individuals and the state at the setting up of civil society in which citizens, in order to secure the protection of their property, handed over certain powers (most importantly, a monopoly of coercive force) to the government in return for the guarantee of certain