Civil law remedies alone, including damages and salary arrears, will not discharge the Article 4 positive obligation1: states must have in place criminal law provisions which penalise and effectively prosecute the practices prohibited by Article 4 and those provisions must be applied in practice2. They must provide practical and effective protection and deterrence against actions amounting to a violation of Article 4, including allowing the victim to see the individual or individuals responsible convicted under the criminal law
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