478. Circumstances in which freedom of expression may lawfully be restricted.

Freedom of expression1 may be legitimately restricted by such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law2 and are necessary in a democratic society3 in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety4, for the prevention of disorder or crime5, for the protection of health or morals6, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others7, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence8, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary9. Restrictions on freedom of expression must be construed strictly