38. Africa.

The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights1 was adopted in 1981 for the purpose of safeguarding and promoting human rights on the continent of Africa2. The Charter makes specific reference to protecting human dignity3 and guarantees a range of rights and freedoms including the right to life4, the prohibition of torture5, the prohibition of slavery and forced labour6, the right to liberty and security7, the right to a fair hearing8, the prohibition of retrospective punishment9, freedom of thought, conscience and religion10, freedom of information and expression11, freedom of assembly and association12, the right to participate in government13, the