An 'effective' remedy for the purposes of Article 131 is one that could have prevented the alleged violation occurring or continuing or could have afforded the applicant appropriate redress for any violation that had already occurred2: the effectiveness of a remedy does not, however, depend on a favourable outcome for the applicant3. The remedy required by Article 13 must also be 'effective' in practice as well as in law, in particular in the sense that its exercise must not be unjustifiably hindered by the acts or omissions of the authorities of the state4. The term 'effective' means that the
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