The age of chivalry engendered societies whose membership was restricted to knights. Of these the earliest in England was a society known as the Order of the Garter1, founded by Edward III in or about 13482. It is limited to 24 knights in addition to the Sovereign (who is head of the order) and the Prince of Wales, but the Sovereign has the power to create additional royal knights and may appoint foreign Sovereigns as extra knights. Provision was made for the appointment of foreign knights in 1954. Historically the Garter was not normally bestowed on peers, particularly prior
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Definition of automatismAn act is done in a state of automatism if it is done by the body without control by the mind, (eg it is a spasm or a reflex), or if it is done by a person who is not conscious of what they are doing. The act may be described as involuntary, but will not be regarded as such
Brexit: The UK's departure from the EU on exit day ie Friday 31 January 2020 has implications for practitioners dealing with provisions in the CPR relevant to cross border matters, including CPR 5.4C (discussed below). For guidance on the impact of Brexit on the CPR, see Cross border
What is a res judicata?A res judicata is a decision given by a judge or tribunal with jurisdiction over the cause of action and the parties, which disposes, with finality, of a matter decided so that it cannot be re-litigated by those bound by the judgment, except on appeal.Final judgments by
A limited company that proposes to issue redeemable shares must comply with the provisions of the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006).Why do companies issue redeemable shares?A company may wish to issue redeemable shares so that it has an alternative way to return surplus capital to shareholders without
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