458. Test for novelty.

To anticipate a patent1, a prior publication2 or activity must contain the whole of the invention impugned3, that is, all the features by which the particular claim attacked is limited. Thus, if a prior publication contains a clear description of, or clear instructions to do or make, something which would infringe the patentee's claim if carried out after the grant of the patentee's patent, the patentee's claim is bad for lack of novelty4. So also if, although it cannot be seen from a mere reading of a prior publication that a claim is anticipated, carrying out the directions contained