Where a change has been made in a known article or process to effect a small result of trifling or dubious utility, or where it is not essential to the result obtained, the new variation thereby effected does not in general amount to an inventive step1. These so-called inventions generally consist in the choice of well-known variants to meet some special purpose often at the sacrifice of other advantages in the forms already in use, in circumstances which lend no weight to the argument that the novelty of the new variation implies that it was not obvious
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Private nuisancePrivate nuisance is an unlawful interference with a person's use or enjoyment of land or some right over or in connection with it. Interference must be unreasonable, and may be caused, eg by water, smoke, smell, fumes, gas, noise, heat or vibrations. Where the defendant has not
This Practice Note discusses the common law doctrine of privity of contract; the equitable and statutory exceptions to it; how the doctrine affects enforcing a contract against a third party and what happens when, notwithstanding the lack of privity, a contract has an indirect effect on a third
Company directors are not, by virtue only of their office as director, automatically entitled under company law to remuneration for services as a director or to reimbursement of expenses incurred in rendering such services. Power to pay directors remuneration for their services will need to be
Unlike many other countries, the UK has no unfair competition law. Brand owners seeking to prevent competitors from marketing ‘copycat’ products or using misleading advertising have to rely on a combination of different intellectual property rights. These rights include the common law right to
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