Old designs1 are validly registered only in respect of features of shape, configuration, pattern or ornament2 which in the finished article appeal to and are judged by the eye3. It is necessary that a design should show some new effect clearly distinguishable by the eye from what has gone before4 and that the change should be such that some degree of real mental activity has been needed for its production5. The criteria on which the court acts differ according to whether the improvement has or lacks artistic merit. A new and agreeable artistic effect often defies analysis of its
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There may be times when, rather than assigning the benefit of an agreement to a third party, the original parties wish instead to end their obligations to each other under that agreement and, in effect, recreate it, with the third party stepping into the shoes of one of the original parties. This is
The Public Private Partnership (PPP) models are a popular way for governments to involve private investment, expertise and risk in procuring infrastructure, with the potential to deliver a project more efficiently and economically. One of the most popular PPP models for procuring infrastructure
The offence of causing grievous bodily harm with intentWounding or causing grievous bodily harm (GBH) with intent is triable only in the Crown Court on indictment. Elements of the offence Under the Offences against the Person Act 1861 (OATPA 1861), the prosecution must prove the defendant unlawfully
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