543. Defendants in proceedings for infringement.

The claimant to an infringement action may join as defendants all persons responsible for the breaches on which he sues, for example the manufacturer of or dealer in an infringing article, or a vendor and purchaser1, or a principal and agent2 or as joint tortfeasors being parties to a common design to infringe3. The directors of a company should not be joined as defendants unless they have done some act which makes them personally responsible4. Where the action is brought against a shipping company or railway in respect of goods carried by it, the consignee should also be joined