If the fundamental objects of a partnership are legal, the fact that the partnership agreement or rules contain illegal provisions does not invalidate the whole1; and, if the objects of the partnership can, and are intended to, be carried out without any breach of the common law or statute, the fact that one partner has been guilty of illegal acts
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Dividends involve a distribution of cash or a distribution of non-cash assets (known as a distribution in kind or a distribution in specie).A scrip dividend (in a tax context, sometimes referred to as a stock dividend) allows a shareholder to receive new shares in a company as an alternative to a
This Practice Note explains certain common financial covenants used in commercial finance transactions including:•minimum net worth test•gearing ratio•leverage ratio (or debt to equity ratio)•current ratio (or acid test ratio)•cashflow ratio•interest cover ratio, and•loan to value ratioIt explains:
Criminal offences are generally divided into two categories: •conduct crimes, and •result crimesA conduct crime is a crime where only the forbidden conduct needs to be proved. For example, an accused is guilty of dangerous driving if they drove a motor vehicle dangerously on a road or other public
Deceit—what is it?A deceit occurs when a misrepresentation is made with the express intention of defrauding a party, subsequently causing loss to that party.The elements of a claim in deceit are:•a clear false representation of fact or law•fraud by the maker, in the sense that they knew that the
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