A partner in a trading firm has implied authority1 to draw, accept and indorse bills of exchange and other negotiable instruments on behalf of his firm in the ordinary course of its business2, but not otherwise3; and the firm is liable even if the transaction is fraudulent and unauthorised, if the holder has no notice of such fraud4. Save in relation to cheques5 this implied authority does not, however, extend to firms which are not trading partnerships, such as solicitors6 or commission agents7. The fact that a bill is given for a partner's private debt raises a presumption that
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IntroductionShari'ah (also Sharia, Shariah or Shari’a) (literally, in Arabic, 'the path towards the watering place') or Islamic law is the legal system of the religion of Islam that sets out a system of duties or code of conduct for individuals to follow so that they may live their life in a
LiabilityFalse imprisonment consists of the complete deprivation of liberty without a lawful basis. Claims will in practice be made against a public body that exercises detention powers, usually a local police force, the Secretary of State for the Home Department or the Secretary of State for
Issue estoppel is a sub-species of the res judicata doctrine (see Practice Note: The doctrine of res judicata). In addition to the general key requirements for establishing a res judicata (see Practice Note: Key requirements to establish a res judicata), this Practice Note considers the specific
This Practice Note provides guidance on claims for ‘use and occupation’ or mesne profits, and how and when double rent or double value can be claimed.Claims for use and occupationA claim for use and occupation is possible where there is occupation of land without an express agreement fixing the
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