The lords spiritual are the archbishops and such of the bishops of the Church of England as have seats in the House of Lords.
Bishops are appointed by the Crown1 and their right to sit and vote in the House of Lords is established by ancient usage and by statute2. There are two archbishops and 40 diocesan bishops in England3 but of these only the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, the Bishops of London, Durham and Winchester and the next most senior 21 bishops (in order of appointment) are entitled to sit in the House of Lords
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The principle of transferred maliceIf a person has a malicious intent towards X and, in carrying out that intent, injures Y, he is guilty of an offence. So, if D shoots at A with intent to kill him but kills B by mistake it is murder; the mistake as to the identity of the victim is irrelevant as D
This Practice Note explains certain common financial covenants used in commercial finance transactions including:•minimum net worth test•gearing ratio•leverage ratio (or debt to equity ratio)•current ratio (or acid test ratio)•cashflow ratio•interest cover ratio, and•loan to value ratioIt explains:
Statutory declaration of solvencyA company enters voluntary liquidation when the members of the company vote to do so by a special resolution. For more information, see Practice Note: What is a members' voluntary liquidation (MVL) and where/when is it typically used?Before the members can vote on a
What is a res judicata?A res judicata is a decision given by a judge or tribunal with jurisdiction over the cause of action and the parties, which disposes, with finality, of a matter decided so that it cannot be re-litigated by those bound by the judgment, except on appeal.Final judgments by
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