The principal functions of the House of Commons when considering ways and means are:
(1) to consider and vote the taxes necessary for the supplies of the year; and
(2) to authorise payments into the Consolidated Fund or the National Loans Fund even if they do not accrue during the current year1.
A ways and means resolution is a necessary preliminary to the imposition of a new tax, the continuation of an expiring tax, an increase in the rate of an existing tax or an extension of the incidence of a tax so as to include persons not already payers
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This Practice Note identifies the main torts (bar negligence and nuisance, which are covered elsewhere in our related content) and their key characteristics. Specifically:•trespass to land•trespass to the person•privacy/defamation•liability for animals•employers' liability•product
Disposal and devolutionThe equity of redemption arises as soon as the mortgage is made. It is an interest in the land which the mortgagor can:•transfer, lease or mortgage inter vivos, or•by will (it passes on intestacy)No cloggingIt is a fundamental principle of a mortgage that there must be no clog
Criminal offences are generally divided into two categories: •conduct crimes, and •result crimesA conduct crime is a crime where only the forbidden conduct needs to be proved. For example, an accused is guilty of dangerous driving if they drove a motor vehicle dangerously on a road or other public
On the disposition of a property (whether by way of conveyance, transfer or charge), the party making the disposition will normally provide a title guarantee which implies standard form covenants for title. A landlord may give a title guarantee when granting a lease, but this is rare in practice.
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