As the guardian of the privileges of the House of Commons, the Speaker, immediately after the confirmation of his election has been announced to him by the Lords Commissioners, demands from the Crown the rights and privileges of the Commons, and, throughout the duration of the Parliament, is responsible for the preservation of the dignity, the maintenance of the privileges and the due enforcement of the rights of the House of Commons. To the Speaker, therefore, belongs the duty of executing all the orders of the House, and accordingly he issues warrants for the committal of persons who have
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This Practice Note explains certain common financial covenants used in commercial finance transactions including:•minimum net worth test•gearing ratio•leverage ratio (or debt to equity ratio)•current ratio (or acid test ratio)•cashflow ratio•interest cover ratio, and•loan to value ratioIt explains:
An intention to create legal relations is requiredThere are various situations in which a court will hold that an agreement is not binding because, though supported by consideration, it was made without any intention of creating legal relations (see, eg, Blue v Ashley).Did the parties intend to
The Public Private Partnership (PPP) models are a popular way for governments to involve private investment, expertise and risk in procuring infrastructure, with the potential to deliver a project more efficiently and economically. One of the most popular PPP models for procuring infrastructure
This Practice Note considers the different categories of contractual damages that may be available for financial loss (pecuniary loss), ie expectation-based damages, reliance-based damages and gains-based damages.For guidance on contractual damages generally, see Practice Note: Contractual
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