When the decision of the Speaker of the House of Commons or the chair as to the preponderance of voices upon a question which has been put from the chair is challenged, the Speaker or the chair, as the case may be, immediately orders the lobbies to be cleared1. After an interval of not more than two minutes, he again puts the question2, and if his opinion is again challenged, and unless in his opinion a division is unnecessarily claimed3, he directs the 'ayes' to go into the right lobby and the 'noes' into the left, and nominates two
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This Practice Note explains certain common financial covenants used in commercial finance transactions including:•minimum net worth test•gearing ratio•leverage ratio (or debt to equity ratio)•current ratio (or acid test ratio)•cashflow ratio•interest cover ratio, and•loan to value ratioIt explains:
Who is a fiduciary?There is no comprehensive list of the relationships which give rise to the existence of fiduciary duties under common law. Some relationships are automatically fiduciary, eg those between trustee and beneficiary, solicitor and client, principal and agent, business partner and
Issue estoppel is a sub-species of the res judicata doctrine (see Practice Note: The doctrine of res judicata). In addition to the general key requirements for establishing a res judicata (see Practice Note: Key requirements to establish a res judicata), this Practice Note considers the specific
A certificate of title (also known as a certificate on title) is a particular species of report on title.When solicitors are instructed to investigate title to land (for instance, when land is being acquired or offered up as security), they will write a report on title for their client, which sets
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