Supply Estimates are the means by which the government seeks authority from Parliament for its own spending each year1. The Main Estimates start this process and are presented to Parliament by the Treasury at around the start of the financial year to which they relate. The main Supply Estimates are contained in separate volumes covering the main central government departments, as well as other state bodies such as the House of Commons Administration, the Supreme Court, the National Audit Office, the Electoral Commission, and the National Archives2.
Departmental Estimates include not only the spending plans of the relevant government department
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Definition of automatismAn act is done in a state of automatism if it is done by the body without control by the mind, (eg it is a spasm or a reflex), or if it is done by a person who is not conscious of what they are doing. The act may be described as involuntary, but will not be regarded as such
STOP PRESS: The Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 contains provisions which, on a temporary basis (presently until 31 December 2020) impose significant limitations on the ability for a creditor to seek a winding-up order against a company. For further reading, see Practice Note: Corporate
What is a res judicata?A res judicata is a decision given by a judge or tribunal with jurisdiction over the cause of action and the parties, which disposes, with finality, of a matter decided so that it cannot be re-litigated by those bound by the judgment, except on appeal.Final judgments by
This Practice Note considers the meaning and use of conditions precedent in commercial arrangements. It also considers typical conditions precedent and drafting issues.What are conditions precedent?A condition precedent in a commercial contract details an event which must take place before:•a
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