In the exercise of the common law right of abatement, local authorities are in the same position as private individuals1.
Statutes which confer a right of abatement in special circumstances sometimes impose restrictions upon its exercise by defining the period when it may be exercised, as in the case of lopping trees overhanging a highway
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The principle of transferred maliceIf a person has a malicious intent towards X and, in carrying out that intent, injures Y, he is guilty of an offence. So, if D shoots at A with intent to kill him but kills B by mistake it is murder; the mistake as to the identity of the victim is irrelevant as D
A declaratory judgment is a judgment identifying the rights, duties or obligations of one or more parties in a dispute. It is legally binding, but does not order any action by a party. A court may issue it alone or in conjunction with some other relief such as an injunction and can be granted on an
Deceit—what is it?A deceit occurs when a misrepresentation is made with the express intention of defrauding a party, subsequently causing loss to that party.The elements of a claim in deceit are:•a clear false representation of fact or law•fraud by the maker, in the sense that they knew that the
For guidance on the basic features of the doctrine of estoppel and the different classifications it has been subject to, see Practice Note: Estoppel—what, when and how to plead and related content.Promissory estoppel—what is it?Where A has, by words or conduct, made to B a clear and unequivocal
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