181. General rule of liability.

Any person is liable for a nuisance who either creates or causes it, or continues or adopts it, or who authorises its creation or continuance1. The liability applies whether or not that person is in occupation of the land on which the nuisance is committed2. However, an occupier will not be liable for a nuisance created by a trespasser without his knowledge, actual or constructive, or consent3. A person is liable as having caused or continued a nuisance when he is guilty of an act or omission which directly gives rise to the nuisance4; when he authorises such an