Where a public body has acted in a negligent manner when implementing its statutory duties or decisions taken under its statutory powers, it may owe a duty of care based on the normal principles of foreseeability, proximity and justice and reasonableness1. In some situations a duty may be denied on the grounds of lack of proximity or unreasonableness. Thus it has been held that the police do not owe a duty to the public in relation to the manner in which they carry out their duty to investigate crime2, or maintain public order3 and highway safety4. The police will,
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Dividends involve a distribution of cash or a distribution of non-cash assets (known as a distribution in kind or a distribution in specie).A scrip dividend (in a tax context, sometimes referred to as a stock dividend) allows a shareholder to receive new shares in a company as an alternative to a
The right to notice means a right for the employee to remain in employment for the period of notice, not simply to be paid for it. An employer will therefore often include in the contract an express right to make a payment in lieu of notice ('PILON') as an alternative to giving notice, to ensure
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The primary function of office-holders in personal and corporate insolvency is to collect in the assets belonging to a company or individual and to distribute these to the company's or individual's creditors. Office-holders have various duties and powers in order to ensure that they do this. For
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