47. Nature of duty.

(5)     Duty in Relation to Goods Supplied

47.     Nature of duty.

Independently of any warranty1, a person who manufactures and sells an article owes a duty to take reasonable care in its design2 and manufacture3. The duty is not limited to articles intended for personal use by way of consumption4 or external application5, or as apparel6, but extends to tools7 and substances8 or appliances9 of any kind, including vehicles10 and lifts11. The duty is owed not only to the ultimate user but to all persons who might reasonably be expected to be affected, such as