11. Liability for psychiatric damage (nervous shock).

A duty of care in relation to shock in the sense of psychiatric damage1 is owed to those foreseeably and directly involved in the horrific event caused by the defendant's negligence2. Thus a claimant suffering shock through involuntary participation in the event itself3, or through fear for his own safety in the face of the event4, may recover damages5. A rescuer who seeks to be compensated for psychiatric harm must satisfy the threshold requirement that he objectively exposed himself to personal danger or reasonably believed that he was doing so6. Where the claimant is a primary victim, that is

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