A duty of care in relation to shock in the sense of psychiatric damage1 is owed to those foreseeably and directly involved in the horrific event caused by the defendant's negligence2. Thus a claimant suffering shock through involuntary participation in the event itself3, or through fear for his own safety in the face of the event4, may recover damages5. A rescuer who seeks to be compensated for psychiatric harm must satisfy the threshold requirement that he objectively exposed himself to personal danger or reasonably believed that he was doing so6. Where the claimant is a primary victim, that is
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Codicils may be used for making any alteration in a Will such as to alter the executors or make changes in legacies, whether by addition or deletion but that is by no means their only use. As a general rule, substantial changes are best achieved by means of a new Will and codicils are more
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This Practice Note considers the meaning and use of conditions precedent in commercial arrangements. It also considers typical conditions precedent and drafting issues.What are conditions precedent?A condition precedent in a commercial contract details an event which must take place before:•a
Involuntary manslaughter—introductionManslaughter can be classified as either voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary manslaughter consists of those killings which would be murder (because the accused has the relevant mental element—hence the label voluntary manslaughter) but which are reduced to
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