3. Causation.

The claimant must prove that the defendant's wrongdoing was a cause, although not necessarily the sole or dominant cause, of his injuries1. Whereas the act or default of the claimant may serve to reduce or extinguish his damages by reason of contributory negligence2 or by his failure to mitigate his loss3, the claimant's act has no such effect if the wrongdoer has exposed him to

peril and the claimant has not acted unreasonably in all the circumstances4. Where the damage is a direct result of the conduct of a third party and only indirectly the consequence of the defendant's conduct, the defendant may still be held responsible5

. The courts may determine the scope of the defendant's responsibility at the level of notional duty or by reference to the principles of causal responsibility