The term 'spoliation' refers to the systematic programme for the forced transfer of works of art and other cultural objects instigated by the Nazis between 1933, when they came to power, and the end of World War II in 19451.
In 1943 the United Kingdom and 16 other governments, in recognition of this situation, issued a declaration reserving the rights of governments to declare invalid any transfers of, or dealings in property subject to such spoliation2. In 1998 the Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets endorsed certain principles for dealing with Nazi spoliated art3, and in 1999 the Parliamentary Assembly of
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