Mines, quarries and minerals in their original position are part and parcel of the land1. Consequently the owner of surface land is entitled prima facie to everything beneath or within it, down to the centre of the earth2. This principle applies even where title to the surface has been acquired by prescription3, but it is subject to exceptions. Thus, at common law, mines of gold and silver belong to the Crown4, and by statute unworked coal which was, at the restructuring date, vested in the British Coal Corporation is vested in the Coal Authority5. Any minerals removed from land
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