A state may incur international responsibility for the act or omission of an organ or a person or entity exercising elements of governmental authority even if the conduct was outside the scope of the actual authority of the organ or official, and even if the act was committed in violation of the state's domestic law1. Responsibility may arise within the scope of apparent authority, as for example when it is an act of the type which an official is engaged to perform2. It may also arise if the act is beyond the scope of the official's apparent authority but
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