419. The modes of responsibility: in general.

B. General Principles of Inculpation and Exculpation

419.     The modes of responsibility: in general.

Criminal responsibility attaches under customary international law1 not only to those who physically commit a crime under customary international law but also to those who participate in it in some other specified way2. Customary international law additionally provides in certain circumstances for the criminal responsibility of military commanders and civilian superiors who fail to prevent, put a stop to or punish crimes under customary international law by their subordinates3. Each of the various bases or so-called 'modes' of criminal responsibility