13. The constitutional context.

The place of international law and the conduct of international relations in English law are governed by the United Kingdom constitution1. Of cardinal importance in this regard is the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, which implies that in no case may the express words of statute be overridden by reference to international law2. Just as significant is the separation of powers as between Parliament and the executive, in accordance with which the executive may neither make nor abrogate domestic law by its acts alone3. While the executive enjoys the constitutional authority to bind the United Kingdom as a matter of