11. Peremptory norms and obligations owed to the international community as a whole.

A peremptory norm of general international law, sometimes termed 'jus cogens', is a norm of general international law accepted and recognised by the international community of states as a whole as a norm from which no derogation is permitted and which can be modified only by a subsequent norm of general international law having the same character1. The criteria for identifying peremptory norms are stringent. The norms that are clearly accepted and recognised as peremptory include the prohibitions of aggression, genocide, slavery and racial discrimination, crimes against humanity and torture, and the right of self-determination