98. Invalidity: error, fraud and corruption.

98.     Invalidity: error, fraud and corruption.

A state may invoke an error in a treaty1 as invalidating its consent to be bound2 by the treaty if the error relates to a fact or situation which was assumed by that state to exist at the time when the treaty was concluded and formed an essential basis of its consent to be bound by the treaty3. If a state has been induced to conclude a treaty by the fraudulent conduct of another negotiating state4, the state may invoke the fraud as invalidating its consent to