99. Invalidity: coercion, threat or use of force, and conflict with a peremptory norm.

99.     Invalidity: coercion, threat or use of force, and conflict with a peremptory norm.

The expression of a state's consent to be bound1 by a treaty2 which has been procured by the coercion of its representative through acts or threats directed against him is without any legal effect3. Further, a treaty is void if its conclusion has been procured by the threat or use of force in violation of the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations4. A treaty is also void if, at the time of its