161. Freedom of the high seas.

In the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea1, the term 'high seas' denotes all parts of the sea not included in the exclusive economic zone, the territorial sea or internal waters of a state or in the archipelagic waters of an archipelagic state2. The high seas are res communis and open to all states, whether coastal or land-locked3, so that no state may validly purport to subject any part of the high seas to its sovereignty4. They are reserved for peaceful purposes5. Freedom of the high seas comprises, inter alia, both for coastal and land-locked states: