453. Expropriation: the nature of expropriatory conduct.

At its most straightforward expropriation consists of an outright deprivation of the owner's title to property, but expropriation may take many forms and action that falls short of a direct taking of the assets in question by the state may still constitute expropriation1. For example expropriation may be constituted by depriving the owner of the use of property2, or excessive use of national legislation to deprive the owner of the fruits of the property (as in the use of tax or exchange laws3), or by a government taking successive measures which result in a foreign company being rendered incapable