A state may incur international responsibility to the extent that it exercises direction or control over another state in the commission of an internationally wrongful act by that latter state1. In such circumstances each of the states involved incurs its own responsibility2.
Historically, situations in which one state had power to direct and control another state in the commission of an internationally wrongful act arose principally in the context of relations of dependency such as suzerainty or a protectorate3. In modern practice, such situations have arisen in particular in the context of belligerent occupation4, although it is possible that one
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