29. Adjudication of the conduct of the United Kingdom government.

There are three general grounds on which the English courts may be legally constrained from adjudicating upon conduct implicating international law on the part specifically1 of the United Kingdom government. Each of these grounds proceeds from the constitutional separation of powers as between the judiciary and the executive.

Public-law2 actions in the English courts touching on international law may be non-justiciable to the extent that the courts are barred from reviewing relevant exercises of the prerogative by the executive3. Except where legislation requires otherwise4, decisions of high policy regarding the conduct of foreign affairs5, the entry into, withdrawal from, or