197. Usual exceptions relieving the shipowner.

It is common for a time charterparty to contain terms specifying certain perils as excepted from the contract1, sometimes by reference to a clause paramount embodying the provisions of the Hague-Visby Rules, or alternatively a clause limiting the owner's liability to damage resulting from his failure to show due diligence to render the vessel seaworthy or some other personal negligence of his2. The effect of such terms is to relieve the shipowner from responsibility either for the safety of the goods or for the performance of the contract, whenever loss or damage is occasioned to cargo or the performance