344. Strikes and lock-outs.

One of the exceptions which is inserted for the protection of the charterer is in respect of strikes1 and lock-outs. The phrase 'strikes and lock-outs' implies a labour dispute2; it does not, therefore, cover the case where workmen abandon their work through fear of an epidemic3, or where the employer dismisses them because he has no work for them4. A strike has been defined as 'a general concerted refusal by workmen to work in consequence of an alleged grievance'5, and includes a 'sympathetic' strike6. The exception may be limited to workmen essential to the loading or discharge of the