315. Perils of the seas.

The exception of loss or damage by perils of the seas1 covers losses of a marine character incident to a ship as such, that is, as a means of carriage by sea2. It is not confined to the violent action of the winds or waves3 or to damage due to contact with sea water or occurring while the ship is afloat4. It does not, however, include accidents on rivers or canals5, or accidents which, although they occur at sea, are in no way due to the fact that the ship is at sea and might equally well be encountered