349. Lien clauses.

The cesser clause may be followed by a lien clause, which expresses the consideration received by the shipowner in exchange for his release of the charterer1. The liens usually conferred by the clause are for freight, advance freight, dead freight, demurrage and general average2, but other liens are sometimes included3. Of these liens the lien for freight, strictly so called4, and for general average5 exist at common law, and are specified in the clause merely to prevent any inference being drawn from their omission6.

There is, however, no lien at common law for advance freight7, dead freight8 or demurrage9; any