425. Licences.

Where the requirement of a licence either exists at the time of contract or is subsequently imposed, the rights and duties of the parties depend on the express or implied terms of the contract, construed in the light of all relevant surrounding circumstances1. If a licence is required and the contract contains no express provision as to who must apply for it, the duty is usually thrown on the party best qualified, by knowledge of the necessary facts or otherwise, to obtain the licence2. In a cif3 or c & f4 contract, the seller is, therefore, normally responsible for