168. Liability of agents and principals.

Whether the agent who negotiated a charterparty was intended himself to be a party, or otherwise bound by it, depends upon its language taken as a whole1. If the signature is expressed to be 'for' or 'on behalf of' a named person, it will be inferred that the signatory was not intended to be a party to the contract, provided that the language used in the rest of the charterparty does not clearly negative this inference and there is no proof of a custom making the signatory personally liable2.

Where the agent signs 'as agent' without naming his principal, the