161. Incorporation of standard conditions via the Hague-Visby Rules.

By virtue of the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971, an international convention containing standardised conditions of liability, namely the Hague-Visby Rules1, is written into the contract of carriage where that contract is covered by a bill of lading or any similar document of title2.

The Rules do not apply to charterparties but are often embodied in them anyway3. This is usually effected by means of a clause called a 'clause paramount'